It is an annual crop which tolerates very well on poor soil. It has a rapid initial growth rate but dies off during dry weather. It is also a prolific seeder and produces high biomass. The seed rate is 3-4.5Kg/Ha. It is a twining, perennial legume, with stems up to several meters long, becoming woody with age, rooting at nodes when in contact with moist soil; may be hairy or nearly hairless.
Leaves trifoliate with a long petiole (to 16 cm); leaflets elliptical, ovate or rhomboid ovate, 6-9 cm x 4-6 cm. Calopogonium Caeruleum is a green manure crop providing large amounts of dry matter through leaf fall especially in tropical tree plantations. It is characterized with excellent ability to smother weeds and provide soil cover.
The leguminous cover crops also perform multiple functions such as reducing soil water evaporation, runoff losses, soil erosion, improve or maintain soil fertility and recycling of nutrients. Calopogonium Caeruleum is a commonly used leguminous cover crops species in India.